Renewable Energy: An Overview - Biomass

Biomass can be a significant energy resource when used as fuel. Biomass is plant materials or animal waste used as a source of fuel. In a sense, biomass is really another form of solar energy. Plants store energy derived from the sun and convert it into chemical energy through photosynthesis. Waste plant and animal materials still contain energy, which can be captured through "bioconversions."

The most important issue facing the goal of extensive biomass production in Arizona is the availability of land and water for such purposes. While land availability does not appear to be a problem in this state, water availability is.

More on bioenergy here.

Wind Power

Wind turbine

Wind/Solar Electric Array SE of Tucson

Hub of two blade turbines (from NREL Presentation)

Nacelle Cover (from NREL Presentation)

Old and new in Altamont Pass, California - Courtesy, Dr. Martin J. Pasqualetti - more images 

Wind Power Introduction

Like hydropower, wind power has been used for centuries, to lift water, propel boats, grind grain. It is an attractive and non-polluting source for electricity. It has only been since the mid 1980s, however, that wind power has contributed appreciably to our supply of electricity. The largest generating capacity in the world at present is in Germany, although Denmark is targeting wind as the source of half of its electricity in the near future, if public opposition to their visual intrusion can be overcome.

Some of the largest "wind farms" in the world area in California. One, that in San Gorgonio Pass, is about 100 miles west of Arizona, near Palm Springs, California, where about 4000 wind turbines convert wind power into electricity power. The other major installations in the US are similarly located in passes where the winds are concentrated. Without such concentration, the density of wind power is usually too low to generate electricity commercially.

Like many other states, Arizona has long used wind power to pump water on ranches. Nowadays, this is not a major use in Arizona. Indeed, few sites in Arizona are consistently windy enough for commercial development. Only northern Arizona (for example, near Winslow) might be commercially attractive. As yet, no projects of this sort are yet in place.

An up to date wind article is available at:

Interesting Facts You Should Know About Wind Energy. (by  | Oct 23, 2021)

Wind Energy: State of the Art and Future Trends - NREL presentation

NREL wind presentationView this NREL presentation in one of the following formats:

Learn about:

  • Recent History
  • Wind Turbines Today
  • Economics and Wind Energy Development
  • Future Trends

Wind Resource Maps (AZ and United States) 
US 2003 Year End Wind Powre Capacity (MW) US Wind Resources Map US Wind Power Class MapArizona 50m Wind Power

Almost Too Much Wind Power in Europe

It’s Been So Windy in Europe  (June 2017) That Electricity Prices Have Turned Negative.  See the article Almost Too Much Wind Power in Europe

APS and sPower, a Utah-based company, have proposed the 477-megawatt Chevelon Butte Wind Farm. (2/2020)

The Arizona Daily Sun - The Utah-based company’s proposal was unanimously approved by Navajo County, the Coconino County Planning and Zoning Commission and the Arizona Corporation Commission. This project could build turbines that will be some of the largest structures in the state.  Click here for full news story.

APS Wind Integration Study (September 2007)

The final report of the APS Wind Integration Cost Impact Study was produced by Northern Arizona University (NAU), with contributions from EnerNex Corporation, 3TIER, and Arizona Public Service Company (APS). The report is a result of an eight month study to characterize the impacts and costs due to the variability and uncertainty of wind energy associated with integrating wind energy into APS’ utility resources and practices.

Want more information on wind power?

Geothermal Energy

Geothermal energy is, literally, the heat of the earth. The heat itself derives from radioactive decay beneath the earth's surface and, in certain locations, it is concentrated enough and is close enough to surface waters to be brought to the surface for a variety of purposes. When it is above 150 degrees C (302 F), it is usually considered hot enough to be used to generate electricity as it is in Italy, El Salvador, Mexico, Japan, Iceland, and Indonesia, among other countries. No such operations exist in Arizona, but several power plants are currently in operation just west of Yuma, Arizona in the Imperial Valley of southeastern California. Although some high temperature geothermal resources exist southeast of Phoenix near the now-retired Williams Air Force Base, they have never been deemed economically feasible.

Resources less than 150 degrees C, have wide non-electric applicability. Indeed, the worldwide potential of such temperatures is many times larger than that used to generate electricity. Such temperatures are used in greenhouses, hot baths, onion dehydration, laundries, and even hotel space heating. The capital of Iceland is almost entirely heated with geothermal water. Several heating districts exist in the US, although none are as large as those in Iceland. These include projects in Reno, Klamath Falls, Boise, Susanville, and other locations. The best source of information in the US on such non-electric applications is the Oregon Institute of Technology Geo-Heat Center.

In Arizona, the opportunity to use geothermal water is limited, in part by population distribution, yet at least three locations are well known. These are Buckhorn Baths in Apache Junction, Castle Hot Springs in the Bradshaw Mountains, and Childs on the Verde River. Additionally, the two highest temperature springs in the state are Clifton and Gillard, both in the Clifton-Morenci area of southeastern Arizona. The water temperature at these springs ranges from 158-180 degrees Fahrenheit. Even though temperatures may exceed 284 degrees Fahrenheit at depth, these two sites are only suitable for low grad steam.

The only types of geothermal energy to be commercially developed are those called "hydrothermal". These include steam, as developed at The Geysers (north of San Francisco), and liquid, as developed in southeastern California. Geothermal energy is also available in several other forms. One of these forms, known as hot-dry rock has attracted some attention in the volcanic areas of the White Mountains, east of Phoenix. In such resource areas, heat is available, but there is insufficient water to conduct the heat to the surface. In some of these cooler climes, geothermal heat pumps might be a sensible application. The Geothermal Heat Pump Consortiummaintains a web site with more information.

In summary, major geothermal resources exist near but not in Arizona. The resource that exists in the state has been recognized and, to some degree, explored, but no sites are considered economically commercial at this time. For more information on geothermal power, visit: http://www.geothermal.org/links.html


Hydropower has been used for millennia in most countries of the world. Its longest application has been for use in mechanical tasks, such as grinding grain. With such simple mechanical devices as a "noria", it has also long been used to lift water. Within the last 100 years, hydropower was applied to the conversion of its kinetic energy to electrical energy. Today, hydropower produces 24 percent of the world's electricity and supplies more than 1 billion people with power.

The obvious advantage of generating electricity in this manner is the very high (around 90%) conversion efficiency (compared to a typical conversion efficiency for a fossil fuel power plant of about 35%.) Additionally, there are no emissions to the atmosphere associated with this generation. The most controversial drawback is that the flooding produced behind the dams. canyons.

Well-known examples of hydroelectric facilities in Arizona include Hoover Dam (on the border with Nevada) and Glen Canyon Dam (near the border with Utah). Together these dams can generate about 3,000 MW of electrical power. The reservoirs that each dam creates (Lake Mead and Lake Powell) are heavily used for recreation. Other hydroelectric dams include those on the Salt River and the Colorado River below Hoover Dam. Several sites have been suggested over the years for additional large projects. These have been successfully resisted in all cases because they would infringe on scenic areas, such as Grand Canyon.

At least 22 sites have been identified in Arizona for pumped storage facilities, that is, ones that use off-peak power to pump water back behind dams, making the water again available for the generation of electricity during periods of peak demand. At least 37,000 MW of potential installed capacity has been identified for the state. To date, only a few have been built, all of which are associated with existing dams.

For more information on hydropower, a technology analysis is available from the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) web site.