Earlier this summer the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released its proposed rules for Section 111(d) of the Clean Air Act. This is the rule that deals with reducing carbon emissions from existing power plants by 2030. The proposed rule was shaped by public input and builds upon existing priorities, activities, and efforts in states throughout the country.
How Not to Install PV - Shadow Considerations
This PV array was installed under a tree and as a result the branches of the tree were casting shadows on the PV modules.
These shadows have a severe impact on system performance because the current produced by a PV module is determined by the least illuminated cell in the PV module. In this case all three PV modules have shadows cast by the over-hanging tree.
In full sun we measured an output of about 5 amps with the shadows shown above. There was also an area of sap over one of the solar cells (photo does not show this). After the branches were trimmed back, the current increased to about 9.5 amps. Cleaning the sap covered area increased the current to 10.5 amps, the expected value for the three PV modules.