Carbon targets aren't anything new. States and local governments have set targets for reducing carbon pollution going back more than a decade.
Passive Solar Heating & Cooling Manual, Part 2 of 4
Passive Solar Architecture - Heating
Passive Solar Heating presents the most cost effective means of providing heat to buildings. Generally, the amount of solar energy that falls on the roof of a house is more than the total energy consumed within the house. Passive solar applications, when included in initial building design, adds little or nothing to the cost of a building, yet has the effect of realizing a reduction in operational costs and reduced equipment demand. It is reliable, mechanically simple, and is a viable asset to a home. The following are rules of thumb and an explanation of the essentials of passive solar design.
The mechanism of heating and cooling equipment is usually referred to as a system. A building is designed (home, apartment house, etc.) and a heating/cooling system using forced air equipment with air ducts; radiant floors using hot water; etc., is specifically designed for it. In passive building designs the system is integrated into the building elements and materials - the windows, walls, floors, and roof are used as the heat collecting, storing, releasing, and distributing system. These very same elements are also a major element in passive cooling design but in a very different manner. It should be understood that passive solar design does not necessarily mean the elimination of standard mechanical systems, although recent designs coupled high efficiency back-up heating systems greatly reduce the size of the traditional heating systems and reduce the amount of non-renewable fuels needed to maintain comfortable indoor temperatures, even in the coldest climates.
The preceding explanations show that two elements must be present in all passive solar heating designs: a south facing exposure of transparent material (glass, plastic) to allow solar energy to enter; and a material to absorb and store the heat (or cool) for later use. With these two basic elements in mind a number of approaches to designing a passive solar heated structure are available. Passive cooling is discussed elsewhere in this tutorial.
PASSIVE SOLAR DESIGN
The following section contains a brief description of basic passive solar design approaches. Subsequent sections contain more detailed information regarding each design and some advantages and limitations of each. Do not assume that because a particular design is more effective for a particular purpose (i.e. water walls respond more quickly in the absorption and release of heat) that it will serve in all climates and in all designs as the most effective approach to passive solar heating or cooling. Conversely, identified limitations do not mean that the approach is ineffective, only that it is more appropriate and effective under specific conditions. In choosing a particular design approach, site and climate conditions must be evaluated carefully so that the best approach or combination of approaches is incorporated. No one passive design approach is most advantageous in all climates or on all sites and situations. In the building design industry there are certain ways of doing things that have been developed over years of experience. These are sometimes called rules of thumb (RT). The same is true of passive solar building design. In the following sections, rules of thumb are identified for emphasis. Keep in mind that these are simply guidelines that will, if observed, produce favorable passive solar heating performance. In some cases tables that give detailed information based on climate and site variations supplement the rules of thumb.
The simplest of approaches is a direct gain design. Sunlight is admitted to the space (by south facing glass) and virtually all of it is converted to thermal energy. The walls and floor are used for solar collection and thermal storage by intercepting radiation directly, and/or by absorbing reflected or reradiated energy (Fig. 4). As long as the room temperature remains high in the interior space storage mass (walls, floors) will conduct heat to their cores. At night, when outside temperatures drop and the interior space cools, the heat flow into the storage masses is reversed and heat is given up to the interior space in order to reach equilibrium. This re-radiation of collected daytime heat can maintain a comfortable temperature during cool/cold nights and can extend through several cloudy days without "recharging".
Direct gain design is simple in concept and can employ a wide variety of materials and combinations of ideas that will depend greatly upon the site and topography; building location and orientation; building shape (depth, length, and volume); and space use.
|Figure 4. Direct gain design - A direct gain design collects and stores heat during the day. At night stored heat is radiated into the living spaces.||Figure 5. Direct gain interior - A direct gain design with an interior water wall for heat storage. Heat stored in the water wall is radiated into the living space at night.|
A direct gain design requires about one-half to two-thirds of the total interior surface area (RT) to be constructed of thermal storage materials. These can include floor, ceiling and wall elements, and the materials can range from masonry (concrete, adobe, brick, etc.) to water (Fig. 5). Water contained within plastic or metal containment and placed in the direct path of the sun's rays has the advantage of heating more quickly and more evenly than masonry walls during the convection process. The convection process also prevents surface temperatures from becoming too extreme as they sometimes do when dark colored masonry surfaces receive direct sunlight. The masonry heating problem can be alleviated by using a glazing material that scatters sunlight so that it is more evenly distributed over walls, ceiling, and floor storage masses (Fig. 6). This decreases the intensity of rays reaching any single surface but does not reduce the amount of solar energy entering the space.
|Figure 6. Diffusing glazing materials. Translucent glazing scatters sunlight to all storage surfaces.|
This passive solar design approach uses the basic elements of collection and storage of heat in combination with the convection process. In this approach, thermal storage materials are placed between the interior habitable space and the sun so there is no direct heating. Instead a dark colored thermal storage wall is placed just behind a south facing glazing (windows). Sunlight enters through the glass and is immediately absorbed at the surface of the storage wall where it is either stored or eventually conducted through the material mass to the inside space. In most cases the masonry thermal storage mass cannot absorb solar energy as fast as it enters the space between the mass and the window area. Temperatures in this space can easily exceed 100°F. This build up of heat can be utilized to warm a space by providing heat-distributing vents the top of the wall (where the heated air, rising upward due to less density, can flow into the interior space (Fig. 7). Vents at the bottom of the wall allow cool air to be drawn into the heating space thereby replacing the outflowing hot air, and picking up heat itself. The top and bottom vents continue to circulate air as long as the air entering the bottom vent is cooler than the air leaving the top vent. This is known as a natural convective loop. At night the vents can be closed to keep cold air out and the interior space is then heated by the storage mass, which gives up its heat by radiation as the room cools. A variation of the vented masonry wall design is one that employs a water wall between the sun and the interior space (Fig. 8). Water walls used in this way need not be vented at top and bottom and can be constructed in many ways - even 55-gallon drums filled with water, or specially constructed plastic or sealed concrete containers. Again, as the water is heated, the convection process quickly distributes the heat throughout the mass and the interior space is warmed by heat radiated from the wall.
Figure 7. Indirect gain Trombe wall stores heat during the day. Excess heat is vented to the interior space. At night Trombe wall vents are closed and the storage wall radiates heat into the interior space.
Figure 8. Indirect gain water wall collects and stores heat during the day. Heat stored in indirect gain water wall is radiated into the living space at night.
Another design approach (Fig. 9) takes advantage of the greenhouse effect as well as the direct gain storage wall. A south facing "greenhouse space" is constructed in front of a thermal storage wall exposed to the direct rays of the sun. This wall would be at the rear of the greenhouse and the front of the primary structure. The thermal wall absorbs heat at the same time the interior space of the greenhouse is being heated. If a vented masonry wall is used as storage, heat can also be released into the living space by convection. This combination also works with an unvented water wall. The greenhouse, then, is heated by direct gain while the living space is heated by indirect gain (Fig. 10). The advantage is that a tempered greenhouse condition can be maintained through days of no sun, with heating from both sides of the thermal storage wall.
|Figure 9. Attached greenhouse with vented storage wall. Heat is stored in the wall during the day - excess heat is vented to the interior space. At night the wall vents are closed and stored heat is radiated to both the greenhouse and the interior space.||Figure 10. Attached greenhouse with water storage wall.
An indirect gain design which provides both heating and cooling is the thermal pond approach, which uses water encased in ultraviolet ray inhibiting plastic beds underlined with a dark color, that are placed on a roof. In warm and temperate climates with low precipitation, the flat roof structure also serves directly as a ceiling for the living spaces below (Fig. 11) thereby facilitating direct transfer of heating and cooling for the spaces below. In colder climes, where heating is more desirable, attic ponds under pitched roof glazing are effective. Winter heating occurs when sunlight heats the water, which then radiates energy into the living space as well as absorbs heat within the water thermal mass for nighttime distribution. During the summer, a reverse process, described later, occurs. For best effect, roof ponds must be insulated (movable) so that heat will not radiate and be lost to the outside. One of the major advantages of this approach is that it allows all rooms to have their own radiant energy source with little concern about the orientation of the structure or optimal building form.
|Figure 11. Heating cycle - Roof pond collects and stores heat during the day. At night roof ponds are covered and stored heat is radiated into the space below.|
Finally, the isolated gain design approach uses a fluid (liquid or air) to collect heat in a flat plate solar collector attached to the structure. Heat is transferred through ducts or pipes by natural convection to a storage area - comprised of a bin (for air) or a tank (for liquid), where the collected cooler air or water is displaced and forced back to the collector (Fig. 12).
|Figure 12. Water or air convection loop.|
If air is used as the transfer medium in a convection loop, heated air coming from the collector is usually directed into a rock (or other masonry mass material) bin where heat is absorbed by the rocks from the air. As the air passes its heat to the rocks it cools, falls to the bottom of the bin and is returned to the collector completing the cycle. At night the interior space of the structure is heated by convection of the collected radiant energy from the rock bin. If water is the transfer medium, the process works in much the same way except that heat is stored in a tank, and as hot water is introduced, cooler water is circulated to the collector. In naturally occurring convection systems (non-mechanically assisted) collectors must be lower than storage units, which must be lower than the spaces to be heated (RT). Of course, the addition of distribution assisting equipment can allow for placement of system elements anywhere, but that would then be an Active Solar System.
*PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS:
The performance of any solar energy building, especially one of a passive design, is strongly impacted by the site and the siting of the building in relation to its surroundings. During the winter, the north side of a building receives little direct solar impact due to shading from the winter sun, which is low in the sky, while the south side is exposed to the benefits of winter sun exposure. If site conditions are restricted, the passive solar heated building location will be the area that receives the most sunlight between the hours of 9:00 a.m. and 3:00 p.m. during the winter months. The building location should be near at northern extremity of the sunny area so that future development on properties to the south will not block access to winter sunlight. This location also allows open space for winter activities or gardens to be exposed to as much winter sun as possible.
BUILDING SHAPE AND ORIENTATION
Generally, buildings oriented along an east-west axis are more efficient for both winter heating and summer cooling (RT). This orientation allows for maximum solar glazing (windows) to the south for solar capture for heating. This orientation is also advantageous for summer cooling conditions since it minimizes east-west exposure to morning and afternoon summer sunlight. This does not mean that all buildings must be rigidly shaped oriented. Different building shapes and orientations can be designed to perform efficiently by combining effective glazing, solar exposure, and shading into the building form. This efficiency can be enhanced by variations in the placement of interior spaces and by the use of such options as clerestories and skylights. Depending upon the site, topography, and shape of the available space, orientations other than east and west may be desirable. However, for most climates, an east-west axis is the most efficient for both heating and cooling.
In an east-west oriented building, a north facing exterior wall will receive little sunlight during the winter and this will be a major source of heat loss since heat always moves toward cold. Additionally, building shading of north side open space usually renders it unusable for outdoor use. To alleviate these situations the building should be shaped so that the roof slopes downward from the south to the north wall. This reduces the height of the north face of the building and therefore the area through which heat is lost. This also allows sunlight to reach more area of north side outdoor spaces. Variations of reducing heat loss conditions manifest in north walls include backing the building into a sloped hillside or providing a berm, both of which reduce the exposed north area. Both of these measures accomplish the purpose of a south to north downward sloping wall (Fig. 13).
|Figure 13. South to north downward sloping roof reduces heat loss from the north wall and allows sunlight to reach north side open space.|
INDOOR SPACE PLANNING
With location, orientation and shape of the building is the consideration of interior space distribution. Habitable spaces that are most occupied and have the greatest heating and lighting requirement should be arrayed along the south face of the building. Rooms that are least used (closets, storage areas, garages) should be placed along the north wall where they can act as a buffer between high use living space and the cold north side (Fig. 14).
|Figure 14. Interior space should be arranged so that rooms with high heating and lighting requirements are arrayed along the south wall.|
Entries account for great deal of heat loss especially in small structures. Heat is lost during opening and closing of doors (or windows). Heat can also be lost by seeping between the doorframe and the door, and at windows. This kind of window, door or other wall penetration heat loss (or heat gain in the summer) is called infiltration. To reduce both direct and infiltration losses, entryways should be recessed or protected against the direct force of prevailing winds. Additional loss reduction can be accomplished by providing an enclosed interior "air lock" space between an entrance door and the main building. This double entry, or vestibule, creates a tempered zone between the outside elements and the interior living space thereby reducing the amount of warm air lost (and summer heat gained). It also reduces the amount of cold or warm air entering the living space when the interior door is opened.
The major expanse of windows in a passive solar energy structure will be south facing solar windows. Whole design planning should include considerations re: the impact of heat gain in the summer; views; natural lighting; and privacy requirements in determining the placement and size of windows in the structure.
For the most part, window areas on east, west and north facing walls should be kept as small and as minimal as is consistent with interior requirements and should be recessed and all should be double-glazed. Windows are the least effective heat flow inhibitors of a building's shell, both in terms of letting heat out in the winter, and letting heat in the summer. When the outside temperature is 30°F and the inside temperature is 68°F, a square foot of single pane glass will lose 20 times as much heat (about 43 BTU's per hour) as a square foot of standard wood frame wall with 3'/z inches of insulation.
DIRECT GAIN DESIGN
For Direct Gain heating the area of the glazed collecting surface is determined in response to the duration and severity of winter temperatures; the building size; and the amount of interior thermal storage mass. A correct balance between these factors must be found in order to avoid large daily temperature fluctuations that could result in overheating, even in the winter. As a rule (assuming the correct amount of thermal storage mass), 0.19 to 0.38 square feet of south facing glass for each square foot of interior floor area will provide enough sunlight to maintain an average temperature between 65°F and 70°F during the winter months in cold climates (average winter temperatures between 20°F and 30°F). In more moderate climes the same temperatures can be achieved with 0.11 to 0.25 square feet of south facing glass (average winter temperatures between 35°F and 40°F). More precise data is given in Table 3. Location and sizing of glazing is also dependent upon the building layout and types of spaces i.e., frequently used spaces vs. infrequently used spaces. Adjustments in glazing size and location of solar windows can occur by the use of reflectors, or when other passive solar design elements are used in combination with a direct gain system such as heat loss reduction by the use of movable insulation, double glazing, and by using wooden sash and frames. The lower heat conductivity of wood can reduce the heat loss around windows by as much as 20 percent.
CLERESTORIES AND SKYLIGHTS
Earlier it was mentioned that there may be considerations that override the need for a large expanse of south facing windows in passive heating designs. One is that interior room layout may affect the distance between the collecting windows and the interior thermal storage mass wall. Thermal storage masses in direct gain designs must receive direct sunlight impact, and the farther away from the collecting surface they are, the taller the collecting surface (glazing) must be in order to have sufficient surface solar contact because of the sun's angle. This situation may produce intolerable glare and overheating. Usually, storage walls should not be set back more than 1.25 to 1.5 times the height of the collecting surface - i.e. an interior thermal storage wall should be no more than 12' from the 8' tall solar collecting glazing wall. Also, direct sunlight may impact materials - i.e. dry out wood furniture; discolor certain fabrics; etc. so care should be taken re: interior decorating and maintenance. Finally, and most important, adjacent structures and/or vegetation may reduce the amount of direct sunlight to the point that a south facing collecting surface at ground level becomes infeasible or seriously reduced.
Any one, or combination of these conditions make south wall heat collection for direct gain problematic, but can be easily mitigated by the use of clerestories or skylights. Both of these features admit sunlight at the roof structure of a building and can be used to direct sunlight to a specific interior surface. They can also be used in combination with or as a supplement to a south facing glazed wall. Additionally, they provide for natural light applications, which can reduce the need and cost of artificial lighting.
Clerestories are vertical south facing windows located at roof level (Fig. 15). Their advantages are that they allow diffuse lighting into a room; they provide privacy; and they can be placed almost anywhere on a roof. In a compartmentalized building layout, each room can have its own source of heat and light. They should be located at a distance from a thermal storage wall that allows direct sunlight to hit the wall throughout the winter. This distance is roughly 1.5 times the height of the wall. Ceilings in rooms containing clerestories should be light in color to reflect or diffuse sunlight into the living space. Large interior spaces may have multiple clerestories arranged to allow maximum admission of sunlight. Care must be taken that they do not shade each other, so the clerestorey roof angle (from horizontal) of each clerestorey should be roughly the same angle of the sun at its lowest winter point (noon on December 21). Skylights are simply openings in a roof, which admit sunlight -they are either horizontal (a flat roof) or pitched at the same angle as the roof slope. In most cases. horizontal skylights are used with reflectors to increase the intensity of solar radiation (remember the angle of incidence). Large skylights should be provided with shading devices to prevent heat loss at night and heat gain during the summer months (Fig. 16).
|Figure 15. Clerestory - clerestories can be used to provide sunshine onto interior walls which would normally not have a clear view of winter sunlight.||Figure 16. Skylights provide an alternative for direct solar gain, shading devices must be included as an integral part of the skylight to prevent overheating the space during mild periods.|
STORING HEAT – MASONRY
The major concern in designing a direct gain passive solar structure to avoid uncomfortable temperature fluctuations over the day-night cycle. It is relatively easy to calculate the amount of heat that will be admitted to a room by any particular collecting surface. It is not, however, easy to predict the percent of that heat which will be stored. Since the difference between heat gained and heat stored will largely determine the temperature fluctuation over a 24-hour period, this is one of the most important design considerations. About 65 percent of all heat gained through solar windows during a clear winter day can be lost during the night. This means that during the day, 65 percent of the heat gained must be stored to offset nighttime losses, and to maintain a relatively even temperature profile. Furthermore, efficient storage during the day prevents the build-up of heat during daylight hours.
In general terms, the following rules should be observed in regard to design of heat storage systems:
* masonry and concrete floors, walls and ceilings to be used for heat storage should be a minimum of 4 inches thick.
* sunlight should be distributed over as much of the storage mass surface as possible by using translucent glazing. * a number of small windows to admit sunlight in patches gives better control re: overheating.
* use light colored surfaces (non-thermal mass storage walls, ceilings, floors) to reflect sunlight to thermal storage mass elements.
* thermal storage mass elements (floors, walls, ceilings) should b dark in color.
* masonry floors used for thermal mass should not be covered with wall-to-wall carpeting.
* direct sunlight should not hit dark colored masonry for long periods of time.
Storing heat can be accomplished in many ways but the most favorable storage occurs when each square foot of sunlight is spread (diffused) over a nine square foot area of storage surface. With this distribution of sunlight the storage mass need not be more than 4 inches thick. If sunlight is distributed over less area, storage efficiency can be increased somewhat by increasing the thickness of the storage mass- up to eight inches in thickness. Increasing thickness beyond 8 inches has no beneficial effect on heat storage efficiency. Therefore, the most efficient way to increase heat storage capacity is to increase the storage surface area and the distribution of sunlight rather than the thickness of the storage mass. This is because masonry absorbs heat slowly, and intense sunlight on a small area will have a negative affect by increasing room temperature while not significantly increasing the rate heat is absorbed by the storage mass, while a system using dispersed, less intense radiation across a larger surface of thermal mass storage will moderate room temperature fluctuations and store most heat at the same time.
The heat retention efficiency of masonry storage masses is also influenced by the kind of masonry used. Table 4 shows that magnesium brick has twice the conductivity of the other materials listed. Higher conductivity means that a material responds more quickly in both absorbing and giving up heat - a quality that increases storage efficiency and decreases temperature fluctuations.
Table 4. Thermal storage material properties.
INTERIOR WATER WALLS
Because of the material's good convective properties, interior walls of water (water walls) are much more efficient for thermal collection, storage, and re-radiation than are masonry walls. Water walls should be a dark color to increase heat absorption when exposed to direct sunlight, and will perform well without the problem of heat build-up in the room. The convection process carries heat away from the storage surface quickly, preventing heat build-up, and allows the storage mass to heat evenly in a relatively short time. Widely fluctuating interior temperatures are not often a problem when interior water walls are used for heat storage.
If interior water walls receive direct sunlight between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. and are a dark color, about one cubic foot of water is required for each square foot of solar window to maintain comfortable temperatures during winter months. Increasing the volume of water in this ratio to 3 cubic fed of water will decrease daily temperature fluctuations by as much as 6°F.
INDIRECT GAIN DESIGN:
Properly sized, indirect gain thermal storage elements, usually walls, can provide a high percentage of the heat required to keep a space at comfortable temperatures, even in very cold climates. Thermal storage walls, like interior storage walls, can be constructed of either masonry or water. For masonry walls, between 0.43 and 1.0 square feet of south facing double glazed solar window is needed for each square foot of floor area in climates with average winter temperatures between 20°F and 30°F A smaller area can be used (0.31-0.85) if water is the storage medium. In climates where the average winter temperature is 35-F to 45°F, the figures are 0.22 to 0.6 for masonry walls and 0.16 to 0.43 for water walls. Table 5 gives more precise information.
Table 5. Sizing a thermal storage wall for different climatic conditions.
THERMAL STORAGE WALL SIZE
Correct wall size varies with local conditions and climate; the amount of insulation used; and the latitude of the building site. The first two elements affect the rate of temperature loss from a space, which is influenced by the amount of difference between outside and inside temperatures; and how much insulation is used to slow that rate. Latitude is important because it affects the amount of solar radiation received at the collecting surface on any particular day. For instance, on a clear January day in Tulsa, Oklahoma, a square foot of collecting surface will intercept 1883 BTU's while on the same day, a like amount of surface located in Seattle will intercept only 1537 BTU's (assuming the same slope for both surfaces). Local conditions aside, it is generally true that wall size will need to be increased as one moves further north in latitude.
Other conditions that bear on wall size include obstructions to solar radiation exposure, such as trees, structures, etc.. While unhampered solar access will determine an optimal wall size, reduced or variable access to the sun will require a larger wall area to compensate for reduced solar impact. Sizing guidelines identified herein are based on providing enough heat on a clear January day to maintain an average space temperature of 65 to 75°F over a 24-hour period. Since thermal storage walls are placed between the solar collecting glazing and the interior space to be heated, overheating is less problematic than with a direct gain design. Very cold climates, or where site conditions allow less than recommended wall size, can benefit from the use of reflectors, which bounce the sun's rays to the collection window, thereby increasing the amount of solar radiation moving through the glazing and intercepted by the energy absorber wall. Thermal wall size reduction can occur by as much as 15% if substantial insulation is used at all other wall and roof locations to reduce heat loss from the the building.
Aside from the wall area and amount of exposure, the thickness, type of material, and exposed surface color of a wall are main considerations that determine the effectiveness of a wall in meeting the thermal needs of the structure's occupants. In general, cold climate design benefits from dark, exterior surface colors at the thermal storage wall.
A variation of the cold climate, indirect gain masonry wall, which relies on absorption of solar energy at its face and radiation of converted heat at its back, is the addition of vents at upper and lower wall locations to provide convected heat to the interior space. Thermal storage wall vents take advantage of the excessive heat build up between the glazing and the surface of the storage wall (Table 7) which can easily exceed 100°F. Venting the top and bottom of the wall of the living space allows trapped heated air to move, rising (hot air is lighter than cold air) from the space between the glazing and wall and flowing into the building interior through upper vents. As warm air moves through the vents, cooler room air is drawn through the lower vents, where it is warmed and rises to repeat the action. This convective cycle directly warms the interior space at the same time heat is being absorbed by the thermal mass of the wall, which will give up its heat to the interior at a later time. This dual action is a benefit for direct heating as well as delayed heating.
Table 6. Material and recommended thickness.
Table 7. Effect of wall thickness on space air temperature fluctuations.
Convection can continue 2 to 3 hours after sunset due to the heated exterior surface of the thermal storage wall, so it is important that upper vents are closed when the exterior surface begins to cool. This action prevents a reverse convection cycle, which removes heat from the space. Interior space heating quality can be controlled by providing a movable reflective screen across part or all of the exterior surface of the thermal wall. Vent sizing is about two square feet for each 100 square feet of thermal wall wall surface, equally distributed between top and bottom vents (Fig. 17).
Figure 17. Masonry wall - Vent placement and sizing
in mass wall should be as shown in the illustration.
Appropriate wall thickness varies with the material used (Table 6). Again, the idea is to provide comfortable conditions while avoiding large and rapid temperature fluctuations. Table 7 gives an idea of the range of temperature fluctuations for six different wall thicknesses constructed of five different materials. Regardless of the material used, it can be expected that while thick walls will produce both minimum and maximum temperatures at different times of day than thin walls, due to the additional time it takes heat to be conducted, their increased capacity for assimilating and radiating heat will be much greater .
Water walls are slightly more efficient than masonry walls in collection, retention and re-radiation of heat. They require different design consideration i.e. containing the water in an effective, inexpensive and esthetically pleasing way. There are a variety of water encasing systems ranging from manufactured, elegant free standing cylinders and containers to do-it-yourself systems of used, stacked drums, free-standing plastic cylinders, and site-built tanks.
An indirect gain heating system, using a green house structure as a heat collector, is multi-purpose, practical and efficient. It also requires the most rigorous design because of its multiple nature, which affects sizing for space heating, creating ideal conditions for greenhouse conditions, and accurately predicting performance for both. The attachment of a greenhouse to the south side of a building enables the structure to benefit from the normal, heat collecting greenhouse operation. The greenhouse collects heat due to its solar exposure. This heat can be conducted through a thermal storage wall separating house and greenhouse, or can be convected to the interior space of the building. In this way the greenhouse serves both as a heat collector, and a solarium for people and plants. Generally, in cold climates, a greenhouse design would use between 0.65 and 1.5 square feet of south facing double glass greenhouse collecting surface for each square foot of floor area in the adjacent living space. In more moderate climates this can be reduced to 0.33 and 0.9 square feet. This should provide enough heat to keep the average temperature in the adjacent space between 60°F and 70°F. More data are given in Table 8.
Table 8. Sizing the attached greenhouse for different climatic conditions.
It is desirable for a solar greenhouse structure to be recessed into the south facade of the building, thereby minimizing east and west exposures, which have little effect on heat collection but can be a great source of heat loss. Furthermore, heat transfer through the common wall between the greenhouse and the living space is increased in this configuration (Fig. 18). Greenhouses for heating purposes can be added to frame buildings to provide for direct heat during winter days, but such buildings, without thermal storage mass, do not have the ability nor capacity to store heat for use at night. Some designs integrating greenhouses, adjust for nighttime heating by transfer of all greenhouse heat to main building storage mass (floors, walls, etc.) for deferred use at night. This only works in moderately cold climates, because very cold climates require the residual heat collected by the greenhouse to keep it, and its contents, from freezing at night.
The common wall between the greenhouse and the building interior can be constructed of thermal mass materials (masonry, water, etc.). The greenhouse side of common walls should be dark in color (better absorber) and should receive maximum sunlight throughout the day. Wall vents and/or operable windows can be used to allow heated air directly into the interior space during the daytime.
Wall thickness should be same as that provided for in an indirect gain (Trombe) wall. If water is used, its minimum thickness should be 8 inches (or 0.67 cubic feet for each square foot of south-facing glass).
Masonry walls cannot absorb and transfer heat as fast as a greenhouse can collect it. As a result, temperatures in the greenhouse will fluctuate as much as 60°F on a clear day. To dampen (level out) these fluctuations, extra storage mass (such as masonry units or containers filled with water) can be placed in the greenhouse. These act as an interior heat dampening water wall (1 cubic foot of water for each square foot of south facing glass will reduce temperature fluctuations 25°F to 29°F).
If water is used as the common wall between the greenhouse and the living space, temperature fluctuations will be smaller, and if more than the 0.67 cubic feet of water for each square foot of glass is used in the wall, temperature fluctuations will be further reduced.
In cold climates, it may be advantageous to utilize a heat storage, in the form of a rock bin, under the building or living space, which would act as thermal storage of heat collected during the day. Heat transfer can occur by natural convection if the building is terraced up a slope, or by use of a fan, which would transfer heat to a rock bed located in a crawl space under the floor of the structure (Fig. 19). The rock bed should spread across 75 to 100% of the floor area of the structure in cold climates, and 50 to 75% of the floor area in moderate climates. Heat from the greenhouse should be directed over the rock bed and a means of returning cold air from the bottom of the rock bed to the greenhouse should be provided. If a terraced design is used, colder air will naturally settle due to the convective loop cycle. About 1.5 to 3 cubic feet of fist-sized rock is necessary in cold climates and .5 to 1 cubic feet in temperate climates. Rock bin storage has also been used as a part of a cooling system in warmer climes.
|Figure 18. By extending the end walls of an attached greenhouse, loss to the outside is reduced while the heat gains to the space are incresed.||Figure 19. Small fans (less than 0.25 H.P.) can be used to aid in the transfer of heat from collection space to more remote parts of the structure.|
Roof ponds can be used both for heating during the winter months and for cooling during the summer months. In this section only the heating aspects of roof ponds will be discussed. Table 9 gives the ratios of roof pond collecting surface for each square foot of floor area in the interior space. It should be understood that this will vary depending on location, exposure and local conditions. The lower ratio given in the table should be adequate at lower latitudes while the higher ratio should be used at higher latitudes (colder climates). For latitudes higher that 36° north, roof ponds require greater solar gain exposure as well as greater protection from loss of gained heat.
The system is simple in concept. The roof pond approach brings the differing building aspects of a building - roof, ceiling, heating (and cooling) system, and heat distribution (does away with ducts) into one system. The roof ponds of contained water are the heating (and cooling) unit. The roof/ceilings of the building act as the structural support for the roof ponds; the "radiator" device for evenly distributed heating of the spaces below; and as a waterproof roof system providing protection from the elements. The movable insulation above the ponds is the weather protection, heating/cooling system "manager" and additional protection from the elements. Wintertime heating is comprised of daytime opening the insulating roof layer to allow solar radiation to heat the water beds; water bed warming heats the supporting structure which is also the ceiling for spaces below; heated support structure radiates heat to the space. At night the insulated roof panels close to contain heat gathered by the ponds to continue heating the spaces below. Cooling strategies, discussed later, are the opposite operation plus additional elements.
The sun in northern latitudes is at a lower angle with solar radiation traveling through a greater mass of atmosphere, which reduces its energy content by scattering and reflection. In this situation, increased area of exposure or use of solar reflection can be used to increase roof pond effectiveness. Additionally, in colder climates, the roof pond system benefits from insulating covers to prevent nighttime losses. The most beneficial insulation system is one that is multi-purpose and movable, operating only twice a day to 1) expose the ponds for heat collection, and 2) to cover the ponds to prevent heat loss at night. This insulation system is also beneficial in the summer when the roof ponds must be insulated to prevent summer heat gain. The movable insulation structure can operate in a number of ways - rolling, hinged, etc.. In climates where snow is likely, ponds can be placed in a solar attic below the sloping roof with south facing glazing to allow solar gain, and the attic ceiling can be painted o a reflective color or sheathed with a reflective material. To increase system performance, glazing for cold climate solar ponds can be dual pane, or the ponds can contain an upper layer inflated air cell.
Ceiling structural support for solar ponds (64#/cu. ft.) include structural metal decking (excellent for thermal transfer to spaces below) or thin reinforced concrete decks (more costly, less effective for direct transfer of heat).
In constructing the support structure for roof ponds, the clear span can be as much as 16 - 20 feet or more (for metal decking or reinforced concrete), requiring intermediate structural beams and supports depending on the layout of the interior space and the weight of the ponds and insulating devices. This can be a complicated matter and it is recommended that assistance be sought from a structural engineer prior to design.
It is important to provide a waterproof layer (membrane, etc.) at the pond support system surface to provide protections during draining of water for maintenance, and from water bed material failure and/or weather impacts. The capability to drain the ponds in an easy and non-damaging manner is important. The water should be enclosed in ultra-violet light inhibiting (prevents degradation) plastic bags, waterproof structural metal or fiberglass tanks which form the ceiling below. The top of the water containment system must be transparent and the sides/bottom a dark color. Insulation panels should be constructed so that they can be tightly sealed when closed to prevent infiltration heat loss. In some applications insulating panels can also serve as reflectors when open in order to direct more solar to the ponds.
Heat is transferred from the roof ponds through the support deck to the interior space below. The edges of the deck should be carefully insulated to reduce heat loss. The underside of the support deck serves as an interior ceiling, and all surfaces (including galvanized metal decking) should be painted. Because the system provides a "radiant" ceiling it is important that no insulation is used between the root pond and the interior space. The one exception to this rule is at the bathroom, which generates high humidity from showers and tubs. Here, an uninsulated ceiling can result in condensation and drippage, so effective water barriers and insulation are critical.
Thermal ponds are typically water filled (6 to 12 inches deep) clear, ultraviolet inhibiting plastic bags. Care should be taken to choose materials which do not degrade when exposed to sunlight and water, nor are easily damaged from handing and local conditions. Temperature stratification in the ponds is avoided by using a clear top and dark bottom. With this configuration, sunlight will penetrate the water, be absorbed at the black surface and heat from the bottom will cause a continual convection cycle effect in the pond.
Finally, exposed pond tops should be sloped to drain. This avoids heat loss caused by evaporative cooling of the ponds during. While not a problem for waterbed "bags", this is a problem for more fixed types of installations. (see Haggard, K., et al., "Research Evaluation of a System of Natural Air Conditions." National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161, Order Number PB-243498).
Insulating panels can take many forms and configurations depending on local conditions and design (flat roof with exposed ponds in temperate and desert settings; pitched roof with glazing in snow country), and range from pivoting panels to horizontal, sliding panels constructed from standard metal building construction systems - insulation of polyurethane foam reinforced with fiberglass strands between aluminum skins placed within standard or easily formed metal frames. Panel tracks and supports must be designed so that the panel system (insulation and frames) fit as tightly as possible when closed in order to prevent compromise of the systems effectiveness. Without an effective seal system a great deal of heat stored can be lost at night due to infiltration.
Many times it is desirable, or even necessary, to use more than one passive heating design strategy. For instance, the use of a thermal storage wall may block a beautiful view while a direct gain design in the same south wall may create intolerable glare and have a tendency to overheat. In such cases the two designs can be used side by side or in any other configuration (a thermal storage wall on each side of a direct gain window). It is essential, however, to properly size this combination in order to maintain quality control and avoid undesirable temperature fluctuations. About 60 to 75% of the energy striking the collecting surface of a direct gain window can be used in space heating. On the other hand, only about 30 to 45% of the energy striking the collecting surface of a thermal storage wall is transferred to the interior space as heat. It can be seen that the approximate ratio in sizing this combination would be one square foot of direct gain window equals two square feet of thermal storage collecting surface. With these approximations in mind, it should be a relatively easy matter to size various combinations of passive solar designs.
Variation of roof pond designs make it impossible to present a simple rule of thumb for integrating with other design approaches. However, by reviewing the sizing techniques for the other systems and by knowing the specific design of the roof pond system, an approximate ratio can be calculated.
CLOUDY DAY STORAGE
Even on cloudy days passive solar heating designs continue to collect energy from diffused sunlight. However, this greatly reduced and diffuse solar radiation usually does not provide enough energy to keep interior temperatures at 70°F. Well designed thermal mass systems are sized to have carryover capacity and when combined with some auxiliary heating systems, provide for a comfortable environment for a number of cloudy days.
As a rule, direct gain systems can provide comfortable conditions for 1-2 cloudy days if the collecting area is increased by 10-20%, and the interior walls and floors are of solid masonry more than 8 inches thick. If water walls are used in place of masonry, increase the amount of water to two or three cubic feet for each square foot of south facing collecting area.
In climates where a number of consecutive sunny winter days are common there is a concern for overheating. For example, average temperatures with the above sizing may result in average interior temperatures of 74°F. However, on cloudy days, if the interior temperature drops an average of four degrees per day, comfortable conditions can be maintained for two days with no additional heating needed.
Oversizing in very cloudy or foggy climates is not recommended since thicker masonry takes a few days of sunshine to become fully charged. In climates such as these, overly thick storage masses are likely to result in under-heating problems. Glazed areas with minimum mass thickness should be used so that the system can respond quickly when sun is available.
Indirect gain systems differ slightly when designing for one or two cloudy days' storage. The collector area should be increased by 10 to 20%, and thermal storage walls of greater conductivity be used. If water walls are used, one or more cubic feet of water should be used for each square foot of collector area.
In indirect designs, if standard masonry wall material is used for cloudy day storage., the surface area of the wall should be increased instead of increasing masonry wall thickness. This may increase average daily temperatures, but overheating is easily mitigated by use of insulating panels or curtains drawn across the interior of the wall to provide temperature control. Built in ventilation systems can be used to control overheating for both indirect gain and direct gain systems.
In all structures, the greatest amount of heat gain is lost through glazing, either by conduction through the glass or by infiltration around the window frame. All heat loss during the winter reduces the efficiency of all heating systems including passive solar design, and where possible, movable, tightly sealed insulation should be used to cut losses to a minimum. The extent of heat loss under varying conditions of protection is given in Table 10.
Table 10. Conduction losses through single and double glazing with and without shutters for Boston1.
The use of movable insulation can simply involve manually operated panels that slide on a track across the glazed area, or be motor driven and temperature activated (more expense but more consistent control). Mechanical systems can be used to operate insulation difficult to reach manually. If the building is unattended when insulation should be moved, automatic timers connected to thermostats and/or light sensitive devices can operate, providing appropriate operation of the system. Some machinations can include automatically operated louvers, motor driven panels (roof ponds, etc.) and movable insulation. Whatever the method used, an effective insulation system will greatly increase the efficiency of passive solar designs.
REFLECTORS FOR PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING
If partial shading is problematic, collection of solar radiation can be greatly enhanced by the use of reflecting devices. Generally, horizontal reflector equal in width and one to two times the height of the glazed opening in. length should be used for vertical (wall) glazing. South sloping skylights, benefit from reflectors located above the skylight at a tilt angle of roughly 100° from the slope of the roof (Fig. 20). The reflector should be roughly equal to the length and width of the skylight. Solar collection can be increased 30-40% when reflectors are used with either vertical, horizontal, or sloping glazing. For greatest efficiency, the angle of a reflector in relation to the collecting surface must be carefully selected. Table 11 gives the proper reflector angle for skylights with varying degrees of slope.
In some instances, reflecting surfaces can be used to direct sunlight to an interior storage surface such as a water wall. Reflectors should also be constructed so that they can be used to block heat gain in the summer. Table 12 gives the reflecting properties of some surfacing materials.
Table 11. Reflecting tilt-angles for south-facing skylights.
Table 12. Normal specular solar reflectance of various surfaces.
South facing glass can be a source of overheating during summer months. The potential for overheating can be controlled by a roof overhang carefully designed to shade the glass during the summer (sun higher in the sky) but not block sunlight during the winter (lower in the sky), and by the use of movable outside shading devices.
Overhangs should be equal in length to roughly one fourth the height of the window opening in southern latitudes (36° NL) and one-half the height of the opening in northern latitudes (48° NL).
The projection of the overhang that will be adequate (provide 100% shading at noon on June 21) at particular latitudes can be quickly calculated by using the following formula:
Projection = window opening (height)/ F (see Table 13)
A slightly longer overhang may be desirable at latitudes where this formula does not provide enough shade during August.
The usefulness of overhangs can be increased if they are constructed so that they are adjustable. Adjustable overhangs can be rolled back to admit sunlight on cold spring days. Trellised overhangs that support deciduous vines (vines that lose their leaves in the winter) are another way to block sunlight in the summer and admit sunlight in early spring. Retractable awnings and adjustable louvers can also be useful shading devices.
OUTSIDE INSOLATION (OUT-SULATION)
Masonry wall exterior surfaces can lose large amounts of heat. For example - to achieve an insulation quality equal to 3.5 inches of fiberglass insulation, a concrete wall would have to be 12 feet thick. To avoid masonry wall heat loss to the exterior, it can be insulated on the outside. This "thermos bottle approach" includes the walls and the perimeter of foundation walls. Typical application is the addition of 1 to 2 feet of two-inch rigid waterproof insulation placed below grade to prevent stored heat in floors and walls from being lost to the outside.
In sunny temperate winter climates south facing, dark colored masonry walls need not be insulated as heat gained during sunny days will offset nighttime heat loss.